The article aimed to understand if government crackdown on public affirmation in support of a group of teenagers who were arrested for anti-government graffiti which affects the citizens and its relations in International organizations. Since World War I, we as society witnessed the history and development of the concept ‘refugee’. Refugees the home country and the country which they seek help from, factor such as economic, political and social-culture get impacted.
Who is refugee?
Refugees are citizens of the country who have been derived of their basic human rights, forced to cross national boundaries on account of economic, social and political factors, and seek protection elsewhere due to fear and unwillingness to return back. Refugee can be individuals or a group of individuals with family.
What is the history of refugees?
Refugee as a term came into existence after World War I at League Nations around 1951, a person was termed as a person is feared for beginning persecuted on grounds of race, religion, nationality, members to a particular social group or political opinion, are outside from his home country due to willingness of the fear what will happen if they return.
The rise of refugees raised when Nazism came into power in Germany during 1933 towards World War II. The Jews were stripped of German citizenship which resulted in the rise in refugees. Citizenship can be turned into a refugee on account of the instability of economic, political and social-culture factors in the home country.
Examples such as:
Economic Instability- The Middle East and Central Asia have faced economic slowdown which results in panic situations which lead to military or dictatorship leader style which imposes a certain religion head and leads to refugees.
Political Instability- Any country which has political instability leads to regressive citizenship policy and deprives from fundamental rights which leads to making the citizen refugee in another country i.e. Sri Lanka refugee in the State of Tamil Nadu and southern parts.
Social-cultural Instability- When any social-cultural group in the country impose a certain restriction for the livelihood for the citizens which can lead to a refugee.
What is the challenges face by refugees?
It is disheartening that in time the concept of Global citizens to better out peace in the world due to globalization and interdependence between the country for resources, goods and services. A refugee is viewed as a product of terrorism or terrorist treatment due to the burden of the problem they carry with no choice. The world seeks to forget that the first victims of terrorism are the only refugee.
After WWI Nazism forced terror on Jews community with harsh and brutal ways that the harm is still fresh for the world. Yet, we repeat history in today’s time of the Afghanistan Taliban crisis. The major difference between the 19th century and 21st century is the few challenges faced today more relevant and crucial for humanity. In the 19th century, the refugees were given lower-level employment for survival but their basic human rights were destroyed or questioned, the result of which the third generations are living like citizens.
By now, we have failed to keep humanity faith among our brotherhood such as: –
- Refugee treated as objects sold in human trafficking or facing abuse in all types.
- Refugee no financial support or no employment.
- Misuse of language barrier.
- Lack of safety and security and freedom of movement.
- Lack of awareness for rights and duties.
In reality, the challenges had been faced for a long time by refugees but there were few balances between their livelihood and employment. The challenges were solved by few fundamental rights found under Universal Declarations of Human Rights found on 10th December,1948.
What is the Law of Asylum?
Asylum is defined as sanctuary granted by one state to the other nation-state. It is granted to the foreign person who fears being persecuted in his own state because of his race, religion, political belief or activities. The word extradition represents the opposite notion for traditional hospitality offered to the alien person.
Asylum is of two types:
- Territorial Asylum-
Territorial Asylum are granted by a state on its territory.
Extra-Territorial Asylum-Extra-Territorial Asylum are granted to a state outside its territory.
The difference between asylum is the two kinds of grant wherein the asylum flow from within territorial and other one is outside territorial. The State grants allowance political offenders or political refugees from their home country to seek protection for foreign allowing to enter and to remain on its territory under their protection and grant asylum to them.
What are the International Laws related to Rights of Asylum?
Article 14 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948 – “Everyone has the right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution”.
The United Nations 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees which provide guidelines national legislation for the political asylum.
When did the crisis in Syria Start?
The Syrian refugee started in March 2011 violent government crackdown. Human Rights were poor conditions under the rule of the Ba’ath Party since 1963. The 2010-11Arab Spring raised in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Bahrain and Yemen inspired major protest in Syria. The Syrian army intervened in March 2011 due to which government crackdown gradually. Thus, increased in violence, citizens tried to escape to major military operations.
By May 2011, thousands of people took shelter in neighbouring countries and a large number displaced within Syrian itself. By July, army hold lost control over organized the Free Syrian Army and division took between various groups. Thus, resulted in the first refugee camps opened in Turkey by March 2013 with the home for more than 1 million Syrian people. The civil war had become a conflict as the many religious groups opposed each other
“The Syria crisis has become the biggest humanitarian emergency of our era, yet the world is failing to meet the needs of refugees and the countries hosting them”, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres said in 2014”.
The UNHCR reported that the total number of refugees worldwide exceeds 50 million for the first time since World War II, largely due to the Syrian civil war. The city become a conflict between various religious groups which opposed each other. Thus, influenced in international conventions.
Why did the Syrians leave their Home country?
- Violence- Since 1963 the government had poor human conditions for their citizens and many were deprived of their fundamental rights. The civil war was adding fuel to fire where the citizens were losing their life.
- Collapse of infrastructure- When the government were ignored to their citizen’s needs, the war resulted in the breakdown for their infrastructure related to education heath care etc.
- Children life in danger and stress: Children lost their childhood due to war and political instability. They were always under the stress whether they will be alive for that day or not, availability of food etc.
What are Syrians greatest needs in the COVID-19?
The outbreak due to Covid-19 has extended the need to protect the needs of Syrians than compared to normal time. The refugee who had sought and protected under Asylum have lost their jobs due to the economic impact of pandemic. The foreign country which gave shelter had to face shortage of basic needs for their citizenship which made the refugees have difficult to basic supplies such as food, medicine and clear water. The social distance is not possible for the camp where many refugees reside with limited resources.
Why is the Syrian Refugees Crisis not solved on for almost 10 years?
The Syrian Refugees Crisis was not solved since last 10 years due to religious conflict and military-based neighbouring countries which are under-developed or in King’s rule. Thus, the country has no help from then and the same impact the international treaties and organization. Whenever the United Nations tried to help, the execution was failed due to the political instability and lack of clarity of what exactly going in Syrian.
The Syrian Government failed to fulfil two legal maxim which can be termed as the bases for the welfare of the citizens:
- Salus populi suprema les esto
‘Salus Populi suprema Les esto’ means the welfare of people is the supreme law. The Syrian failed to understand and take measure for public welfare. Thus, even today the refugee crisis prevails as when in 2014 people returned to Syria for their relative and home search, they were failed miserably
- Audi alteram partem
‘Audi alteram partem’ means the other party should be heard. The Syrian government failed to understand their citizen demand in the change information of government functionality. Thus, the army lost their civil war to the terrorist group.
The article aimed to brief of why the concept of a refugee emerged and how it still prevails today in the 21st century. The Syrian crisis for the refugee is still unsolved to date. To conclude, the need for separation of power is understanding from the article when the country has single autonomy. When single autonomy of the country as a ruler without any separation of power always create a conflict of interest. Thus, conflict of interest is the downfall to the governmental and economic activities of that particular country and cost is paid by the citizen of it.
Basic question answered:
Who is refugee?
What is the history of refugee?
What are the international laws applicable to safeguard the interest of refugee?
Why does one become a refugee?
What is Asylum and their types?
 Harriet Sherwood, Global refugee figure passes 50 m for first time since second world war, The Guardian, 20 June 2014.