Right to Vote: A Powerful Right

Right to vote is the right given to the citizens of India through the Indian Constitution after fulfilling the certain condition. It is the most powerful right which the citizen has. As through exercising this right one selects his representative who works for the development of the country and the people. It can be said that the right to vote is an important aspect of democracy as it is the right which compels the politicians to work accordingly to their manifesto to be the ruling party in the parliament. In this article, the author will be talking about the cases and amendments regarding the people’s right to vote.


Option to cast a ballot has been perceived under Article – 326 of the Constitution of India and it expresses that no individual can be denied the option to cast a ballot in the event that he satisfies the need of Adult Suffrage i.e. he is over the age of 18.

As this privilege has not been referenced under Part – III of the constitution it is anything but a crucial right,

Since, it has been referenced under the constitution of India, despite the fact that not under the Part – 3 of the constitution, it is simply an established right and not a principal right.

Legitimate rights are the one is supplied on the individuals from any rule instituted by the law-making body and has no express notice under the Constitution. Like Right to Information radiating from the Right to Information Act, 2005.

While there are some who truly make their choice, numerous individuals take a load off on casting a ballot day, and others are persuaded into deciding in favour of specific up-and-comers. The significance of casting a ballot is lost among the rushing about of city life. While everybody sits and talks about this and makes recommendations that the administration should change various things in the system, the races go back and forth without a large portion of the population focusing.[1] The most noteworthy recorded voter turnout in India was recorded in 2014 for the Lok Sabha races at 66.4%. That implies that near a large portion of the population does not practice their right to cast a ballot.[2]

Following 69 years of Independence, India has not substantiated itself to have control and request. The issue lies with both the pioneers and the individuals. Individuals are driven by strict convictions instead of what is useful for the nation. We ought to pick what drives the nation forward, while as yet maintaining the Indian convention. Be that as it may, legislative issues are ended up in paltry issues instead of giving more consideration to inspiring poor people, helping the matured, training, water, protecting the earth, horticulture, streets, arranged urban turn of events, etc


The cause of Indian democracy, specifically the foundation of its structure through the usage of general grown-up establishment, was a cunningly Indian venture. It was no inheritance of provincial guideline and was to a great extent driven by the Indians, often by individuals of humble methods. The transforming of all grown-ups into voters was an amazing law-based state-building activity of incorporation and scale, which outperformed any past involvement with popularity-based world history. This work was embraced by Indian civil servants between August 1947, when the nation got free, and January 1950, when it received the Constitution.

The various communications among individuals and managers about the arrangement of the primary draft appointive rolls depended on grown-up establishment were huge for the regulation of India’s democracy. Making procedural uniformity integral to government arrangement in a progressive and inconsistent society transformed constituent democracy into an important and solid story for residents. Since individuals from the edges discovered significance and a spot for themselves in the new country dependent on the widespread grown-up establishment, they likewise comprehended the expected new intensity of making bunch character claims.[3]

The SCs and STs transformed into voters and could now, under all-inclusive establishment, completely participate in the impulses of appointive legislative issues. The fruitful execution of widespread establishment when the Constitution came into power empowered the addition of social personalities into the structure of political portrayal. Here lay the seeds of the dynamic station and character legislative issues, which have both extended and tested constituent governmental issues in India.

Through the arrangement of appointive rolls, the theoretical language, structures, and standards of the majority rule Constitution acquired a functional premise. The Draft Constitution accommodated one political race commission for races to the focal governing body and for discrete political race commissions for every one of the states. The last arrangement, which was educated by the experience of the readiness of the appointive rolls, specified political decision hardware that was vested in a solitary self-sufficient political race commission at the Centre.

The guideline of the all-inclusive establishment was embraced toward the start of the protected discussions in April 1947. It was a critical take-off from races under the frontier rule, which depended on a restricted establishment and a partitioned electorate. There was a huge hole to connect in transforming this established desire into reality at Independence, amidst the Partition that prompted mass killings and the relocation of an expected 18 million individuals, while 552 august states presently couldn’t seem to be coordinated into India.[4]

Most by far of things to come and the biggest electorate in history at the hour of more than 173 million individuals was poor and unskilled. Understanding that the undertaking would be giant, a couple of officials at the secretariat of the Constituent Assembly started the planning of the discretionary moves from November 1947.

The secretariat structured the directions for the arrangement of moves in an interview with executives from the regions and the royal states. Their assignment was to operationalise the thought of procedural correspondence with the end goal of constituent democratic. They needed to envision a joint rundown of all grown-ups in the landladies and men all things considered and classes — each conveying a similar load as equivalent voters. This undertaking was, generally, progressive. The pledge to procedural correspondence that was developed during the time spent the readiness of the constituent rolls was strikingly shown when the gatherer of Bombay, for instance, found a way to guarantee the democratic privileges of transients, workers and pathway tenants.

Obviously, when the genuine enlistment of voters started, unmistakable types of disappointment, breaks in the guidelines and troubles surfaced on the ground. In Assam, for instance, the changes chief did not at first view evacuees and migrants as forthcoming residents’ voters, and he taught region officers not to enlist “the drifting and ‘non-inhabitant’ populace”.

Despite exclusionary rehearses in the readiness of rolls, a wide scope of expanding residents’ associations started battling for their democratic rights. They composed various letters of grievances to the secretariat, demonstrating that the arrangements and headings that they gave in the quest for widespread establishment were being subverted on the ground in the readiness of the rolls. Residents’ associations likewise started to request connecting voter’s enrolment with the obtaining of citizenship. To do so they made their cases based on the Draft Constitution’s citizenship and different arrangements, utilizing the Constitution’s language and yearnings, while it was still really taking shape.

Consequently, a protest against the changes magistrate of Assam recommended that his mentality “unquestionably incites metro and political status of an extremely enormous number of occupants in Assam who are anxious to have their status as residents of Indian Dominion affirmed over the span of enrolments votes. Our affiliation believes that enrolment as voters, ipso facto, contributes the individual so selected with the status of a resident”.

Individuals comprehended that a “place on the roll” was the most solid path at an opportunity to make sure about enrolment in the new state. It was their title deed to democracy. The responsiveness of the common help enabled them to do as such. The civil servants of the secretariat answered each letter that showed up at their work area. They took activities to change the issues that emerged. In this procedure, they tutored administrators at all levels and common residents into the standards of appointive democracy and widespread establishment.

The creative manners by which Indians made their democracy did not really imply that India would turn out to be superior to different majority rule governments, nor resistant from the issues that have plagued vote-based systems somewhere else. In reality, India’s democracy missed the mark regarding its sacred guarantees, for instance, to advance social and financial balance. The ascent of hostile Hindu patriotism has assailed its vote based open life and establishments. In these difficult occasions, when the qualities and organizations of democracy are under danger, finding out about and increasing another valuation for how India became equitable may rouse new vitality for the difficulties of the present.

How Do Elections Work?[5]

So as to be persuaded to cast a ballot, you ought to likewise know how the races work. India is a majority rule government with an awry national government. Authorities are chosen from the nearby levels to state levels and the government level. We have two Houses of Parliament:

The Lok Sabha – The lower place of the Indian Parliament is otherwise called the House of the People. Individuals from the Lok Sabha are chosen through general decisions. These races happen at regular intervals. There are two individuals from the Lok Sabha who will be assigned by the President of India. Currently, the Lok Sabha has 545 individuals. Two individuals speak to the Anglo-Indian people group, while the other 543 are chosen for five-year terms.

The Rajya Sabha – The upper place of the Indian Parliament is otherwise called the Council of States. The individuals are chosen by the chosen individuals from the State Legislative Assemblies and the Electoral school of the Union Territories. In this way, the individuals from the Rajya Sabha are in a roundabout way chosen by the individuals. The Rajya Sabha has 245 individuals out of which 233 individuals are chosen for 6-year terms. 33% of the house resigns like clockwork.

Prime Minister – The Prime Minister is chosen by the chosen individuals from the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha is the lower place of parliament in India.

President – The President of India is chosen for a 5-year term by a constituent school which comprises of individuals from the State Legislatures and Federal Legislatures.

Process of Elections[6]

To direct the decisions and guarantee smooth working, the Election Commission of India was shaped. The Election commission deals with everything identified with decisions which incorporate the administration, control and heading of the races and the lead of the races. Coming up next is an outline of the way toward casting a ballot that you have to know.

•You first should be enlisted on the Electoral Roll which is a rundown of qualified voters. You can apply voter id online just as at the VRECs, at assigned areas or through a Booth Level Officer.

•You will be given a Voter ID which you have to introduce at the surveying stall.

•The obligation lies on the resident to know about who is representing decisions.

•It is likewise the obligation of the resident to discover where the surveying corner is in their particular body electorate.

•You can decide on Electronic Voting Machines.

•If you talk just English, you ought to acclimate yourself with the images of the applicants, in light of the fact that the names of the competitors will be recorded in sequential order request in the particular state’s language.

•All you need to do is press the blue catch close to your ideal applicant’s name and image. You can likewise cast a ballot NOTA.

•You will get a characteristic of ink on your finger that connotes that you cast a ballot.

•While it distinguishes in the event that you have just cast a ballot, it is additionally a glad image you can tolerate.

Reasons to Vote[7]

·       It is our right:

As a vote-based nation, India is based on the establishments of political decision. Our Parliament and Legislatures are of the individuals, by the individuals and for the individuals. Casting a ballot is an established right that we are favoured to have. We underestimate it, yet the constitution has given us the option to choose who we need, and the option to roll out the improvement.

·       Agent of Change:

Your vote can have a significant influence in rolling out the improvement. On the off chance that you are discontent with the current government, you can decide in favour of a superior one. Not casting a ballot could bring about a similar gathering administering for an additional five years. By the day’s end, if the nation is left with a terrible government, it is the individuals to fault for casting a ballot wrong or for not casting a ballot by any means.

·       Your Vote Counts:

Each vote tallies. Despite the fact that it appears as though an interminable ocean of individuals is there to cast a ballot, each vote tallies. At the point when the national disposition changes from speculation “my vote doesn’t have any kind of effect”, at that point, the numbers increment and a large number of individuals casting a ballot will have the effect. The obligation lies on each person.

·       NOTA:

The Government of India has made the arrangement for voters to practice their vote regardless of whether they are not content with any of the applicants. NOTA represents None of the Above and this is a significant vote to cast for the individuals who are not fulfilled by any of the gatherings standing. Casting a ballot NOTA communicates that none of the competitors is adequate. NOTA votes tally, anyway in the event that most of the votes are NOTA, at that point, the gathering with the following greater part will come to control.

Case Laws

In State of Maharashtra v. Prabhakar Pandurang[8] held that a prisoner retained the freedom of expression when it allowed an imprisoned person to publish a book that he had written while he was in prison. The Court rejected the Government’s contention that a prisoner could only enjoy those privileges which were conferred to him by the Order, and held that since ‘personal liberty’ was guaranteed under Article 19 and 21 of the Constitution, any law depriving personal liberty could only be valid if it did not infringe both Article 19 and 21.

While the right to vote is not a fundamental right, the Court in PUCL v. Union of India[9] has nonetheless made a distinction between the right to vote and freedom of voting. The Court has held that although the right to vote is only a constitutional right (Article 326), the freedom of voting falls under the ambit of ‘expression’ under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution. This means that while a statute can decide the modalities of voting, the act of voting is guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution. However, even a statute deciding the modalities of voting need to pass the non-arbitrariness test enshrined under Article 14 of the Constitution.

In the case of Joseph Théberge and Anr. v. Phillipe Laudry [10]and observed (as obiter) that the following position of law emerges:

“(1) The right to vote or stand as a candidate for election is not a civil right but a creature of a statute or special law and must be subject to the limitations imposed by it.

(2) Strictly speaking, it is the sole right of the legislature to examine and determine all matters relating to the election of its own members, and if the legislature takes it out of its own hands and vests in a Special Tribunal an entirely new and unknown jurisdiction, that special jurisdiction should be exercised in accordance with the law which creates it.

in N. P. Ponnuswami v. Returning Officer, Namakkal Constituency and Ors.[11] where the rights in question were first discussed. Now, this decision becomes important for two reasons: (i) that it was the first time that the right to contest was debated upon, and (ii) the contention of the State of Haryana, that the rights to vote and contest were mere statutory rights and not fundamental or constitutional in nature was derived from a line of cases decided by the Supreme Court, the first of which was Ponnuswami.


Therefore, it can be concluded that “Voting is the most precious right of every citizen, and we have a moral obligation to ensure the integrity of our voting process.”[12]  so it’s through our votes that we make our future. In the event that one vote with no duty it will place us into a dull future. One should cast a ballot carefully which will support the country. One should feel advantaged to live in a majority rule nation. Liberation is the main thing which makes India the biggest popularity-based nation on the planet. Liberation alludes to one side to cast a ballot through which individuals vote in favour of the reasonable up-and-comer and dispose of sick occasions that hamper their own nation. By utilizing the privilege of vote individuals can change the administration who is not regulating the country logically and sincerely.

In India’s states, individuals change the administration when the chosen government is not up to their desires. Sometimes, individuals abuse their entitlement to cast a ballot. One should utilize its entitlement to cast a ballot admirably and advance popularity-based qualities. Not to cast a ballot is not a choice, one ought to consistently proceed to cast a ballot. One ought to use its entitlement to decide in favour of a correct pioneer which ascends over the tight philosophies of shading, station, religion, and ideology.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q.1. Which Article Explains the Right to Vote?

Ans) Article 326 of the Constitution of India explains the right to vote. Which was incorporated after the efforts of Dr B.R. Ambedkar giving two reasons for this incorporation.

Q.2. What Is the Legal Age to Right to Vote?

Ans) Initially before the sixty-first amendment the legal age for voting was 21 years but after this amendment, the age was reduced to 18 years which is followed till date.

Q.3. Do Prisoners Have Right to Vote?

Ans) Following the recent judgement of the Apex Court the prisoners do not have the right to vote with them as they only right to life with them and their right to liberty is suspended.

Q.4. Why Right to Vote Is an Important Right?

Ans) As this is the right which people by exercising it choose the candidate who will work for the development of the people as well as the country.

Q.5. Is Right to Vote A Constitutional or Fundamental Right?

Ans) The right to vote is a constitutional right because it is not mentioned in Part III of the Constitution of India as this part is related to the Fundamental Rights.


  1. https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/opinion/letters?monthYear=March%202020
  2.  https://brainly.in/question/1366004
  3. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/how-indians-got-the-vote-5064340/
  4. https://indiancountrytoday.com/archive/a-history-of-indian-voting-rights-and-why-it-s-important-to-vote-IQ2lTgiylkiC9GQ98IvhWA
  5. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/elections/lok-sabha/india/who-can-vote-in-india/articleshow/68793337.cms?from=mdr
  6. https://www.bankbazaar.com/voter-id/why-should-we-vote-in-india.html
  7. in State of Maharashtra v Prabhakar Pandurang 1966 AIR 424, 1966 SCR (1) 702
  8. https://indiankanoon.org/doc/58263027/
  9. Joseph Théberge and Anr. v. Phillipe Laundry (1876) 2 AC 108 
  10. N. P. Ponnuswami v. Returning Officer, Namakkal Constituency and Ors. (1952 SCR 218)
  11.  By Hillary Clinton (https://everydaypower.com/quotes-about-voting-and-democracy/)

[1] https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/opinion/letters?monthYear=March%202020

[2] https://brainly.in/question/1366004

[3] https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/how-indians-got-the-vote-5064340/

[4] https://indiancountrytoday.com/archive/a-history-of-indian-voting-rights-and-why-it-s-important-to-vote-IQ2lTgiylkiC9GQ98IvhWA

[5] https://www.bankbazaar.com/voter-id/why-should-we-vote-in-india.html

[6] lbid

[7] Ibid

[8] 1966 AIR 424, 1966 SCR (1) 702

[9] https://indiankanoon.org/doc/58263027/

[10] (1876) 2 AC 108 

[11] (1952 SCR 218),

[12] By Hillary Clinton (https://everydaypower.com/quotes-about-voting-and-democracy/)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *