“Violations of human rights are both a cause and a consequence of trafficking in persons. Accordingly, it is essential to place the protection of all human rights at the center of any measures taken to prevent and end trafficking. Ant trafficking measures should not adversely affect the human rights and dignity of persons and, in particular, the rights of those who have been trafficked, migrants, internally displaced persons, refugees, and asylum seekers.”–Recommended Principles on Human Rights and Human Trafficking by OHCHR
The misuse of people for the benefit has a long history and worldwide endeavors to address it tends to be followed back, at any rate, a century, a long time before the introduction of the advanced basic liberties framework. Notwithstanding, it is just over the previous decade that dealing has become a significant concern. During that equivalent period, a complete lawful structure has created around the issue. These progressions affirm that a major move has occurred in how the global network considers human misuse. It additionally affirms an adjustment in desires for what Governments and others should do to manage to deal and to forestall it. Henceforth, the casualty focused methodology is additionally assembling expanded help from the worldwide network. Common liberties structure a focal board of the new agreement and there is presently inescapable acknowledgment of the requirement for basic freedoms based way to deal with dealing. Peaceful accord on what comprises “dealing with people” is later. Indeed, it was not until the last part of the 1990s that the States started the assignment of isolating out dealing from different practices with which it was usually related, for example, encouraged sporadic movement. The main ever concurred meaning of dealing was fused into the 2000 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, enhancing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Trafficking Protocol). That definition has since been fused into numerous other lawful and strategy instruments just as public laws. This article will analyze all the connected issues and arrangements for Human Trafficking.
Illegal exploitation is commonly perceived to allude to the cycle through which people are put or kept up in a shady circumstance for financial addition. Dealing can happen inside a nation or may include development across the outskirts. Ladies, men, and kids are dealt with for a scope of purposes, remembering constrained and shady work for industrial facilities, ranches and private families, sexual abuse, and constrained marriage. Dealing influences all areas and most nations of the world.
While it is hard to make sure about dependable data about examples and numbers, our comprehension regarding why dealing happens has improved. Disparities inside and between nations, progressively prohibitive movement strategies, and developing interest for inexpensively, work are only a portion of the basic causes that have been distinguished. The numerous elements that expand singular weakness to dealing incorporate neediness, viciousness, and segregation.
The international definition of trafficking
The Trafficking Protocol characterizes the expression “dealing with people” as follows:
- “Trafficking in people” will mean the enlistment, transportation, move, holding, or receipt of people, by methods for the danger or utilization of power or different types of pressure, of kidnapping, of extortion, of trickery, of the maltreatment of intensity or a place of weakness or of the giving or accepting of installments or advantages to accomplishing the assent of an individual having command over someone else, with the end goal of abuse. Abuse will incorporate, at any rate, the misuse of the prostitution of others or different types of sexual misuse, constrained work or administrations, bondage or practices like subjugation, bondage, or the evacuation of organs;
- The assent of a casualty of dealing with people to the proposed misuse set out in subparagraph (a) of this article will be superfluous where any of the methods set out in subparagraph (a) have been utilized; … (article. 3).
The three key components that should be available for a circumstance of dealing with people (grown-ups) to exist are accordingly:
- action (enrollment, … );
- means (danger, … ); and
- purpose (misuse).
Features of Trafficking:
Trafficking affects women, men, and children, and involves a range of exploitative practices. Dealing was generally connected with the development of ladies and young ladies into sexual misuse. The worldwide lawful definition set out above clarifies that people, young men, and young ladies would all be able to be dealt—and that the scope of possibly shifty practices connected to dealing is extremely wide. The rundown of models set out in the definition is open-finished and new or extra manipulative purposes might be recognized later on.
Trafficking does not require the crossing of an international border. The definition covers internal as well as cross-border trafficking. That is, it is legally possible for trafficking to take place within a single country, including the victim’s own.
Trafficking is not the same as migrant smuggling. Traveler sneaking includes the unlawful, encouraging development across a worldwide outskirt for benefit. While it might include double-dealing or potentially damaging treatment, the reason for transient sneaking is to benefit from the development, not the possible misuse as on account of dealing.
Trafficking does not always require movement. The meaning of dealing recognizes development as only one potential way that the “activity” component can be fulfilled. Terms, for example, “receipt” and “holding” imply that dealing doesn’t simply allude to the cycle whereby somebody is moved into circumstances of abuse; it likewise reaches out to the upkeep of that individual in a circumstance of misuse.
It is not possible to “consent” to trafficking. Global basic liberties law has consistently perceived that the characteristic inherent nature of individual flexibility renders agree insignificant to a circumstance in which that individual flexibility is removed. This agreement is reflected in the “signifies” component of the meaning of dealing.
As indicated by the drafters of the Trafficking Protocol: “whenever it is set up that double-dealing, compulsion, power or other restricted methods were utilized, assent is insignificant and can’t be utilized as a protection.“
Human rights most relevant to trafficking:
The connections between common liberties and the battle against dealing are grounded. From its soonest days to the present, common liberties law has unequivocally declared the basic corruption and unlawfulness of one individual appropriating the lawful character, work, or humankind of another. Common liberties law has restricted segregation based on race and sex; it has requested equivalent or if nothing else certain critical rights for non-residents; it has discredited and banned subjective detainment, constrained work, obligation subjugation, constrained marriage, and the sexual abuse of kids and ladies; and it has supported opportunity of development and the option to leave and re-visitation of one’s nation.
- The prohibition of discrimination based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, property, birth, or another status
- The right to life
- The right to liberty and security
- The right not to be submitted to slavery, servitude, forced labor, or bonded labor
- The right not to be subjected to torture and/or cruel, inhuman, degrading treatment or punishment
- The right to be free from gendered violence
- The right to freedom of association
- The right to freedom of movement
- The right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health
- The right to just and favorable conditions of work
- The right to an adequate standard of living
- The right to social security
- The right of children to special protection
Treaties and other instruments particularly relevant to trafficking:
Deals are the essential wellspring of commitments for States regarding dealing. By turning into involved with a settlement, States attempt restricting commitments in worldwide law and embrace to guarantee that their public enactment, strategies, or practices meet the prerequisites of the arrangement and are steady with its principles. These commitments are enforceable in worldwide courts and councils with fitting locale, for example, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court or the European Court of Human Rights, and might be enforceable in homegrown courts, contingent upon homegrown law. Most applicable are as per the following:
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000 (Trafficking Protocol)
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979
- Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989
- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, 2000
- United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000
- International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 1990
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966
- Council of Europe, Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, 2005 (European Trafficking Convention)
- Charter of Fundamental Rights in the European Union, 2000, article 5, and Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and Council on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, 2011
- South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution, 2002
Non-treaty instruments relevant to trafficking
It is imperative to consider the numerous instruments around dealing that are not carefully law. These remember the Recommended Principles and Guidelines for Human Rights and Human Trafficking; rules on kid dealing, given by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and on dealing and shelter, given by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); goals embraced by the General Assembly and the Human Rights Council; discoveries and reports of worldwide human instruments, for example, deal bodies and uncommon methods; and non-arrangement arrangements between nations seeing issues, for example, the bringing home and reintegration of dealt people. A portion of the significant ones are as per the following:
- Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking (Recommended Principles and Guidelines)
- Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law (Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation)
- UNICEF Guidelines on the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking (UNICEF Guidelines)
- Criminal Justice Responses to Trafficking in Persons: ASEAN Practitioner Guidelines
- UNHCR Guidelines on international protection: The application of article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees to victims of trafficking and persons at risk of being trafficked (UNHCR Trafficking Guidelines)
Human Trafficking in India:
Illegal exploitation in India, albeit illicit under Indian law, stays a huge issue. Individuals are regularly illicitly dealt with through India for the motivations behind the business sexual abuse and constrained/fortified work. Albeit no solid investigation of constrained and reinforced work has been finished, NGOs gauge this issue influences 20 to 65 million Indians. Men, ladies, and kids are dealt with in India for assorted reasons. Ladies and young ladies are dealt with inside the nation for the motivations behind business sexual misuse and constrained marriage, particularly in those territories where the sex proportion is exceptionally slanted for men. Men and young men are dealt for the reasons for work and might be explicitly abused by dealers to fill in as companions, knead specialists, accompanies, and so forth A huge bit of youngsters are exposed to constrained work as assembly line laborers, homegrown workers, bums, and horticulture laborers, and have been utilized as outfitted soldiers by some psychological oppressor and guerilla gatherings.
India is additionally an objective for ladies and young ladies from Nepal and Bangladesh dealt with the end goal of business sexual misuse. Nepali youngsters are likewise dealt with in India for constrained work in bazaar shows. Indian ladies are dealt with in the Middle East for business sexual misuse. Indian transients who move readily consistently to the Middle East and Europe for function as homegrown workers and low-gifted workers may likewise wind up a piece of the illegal exploitation industry. In such cases, laborers may have been ‘selected’ via fake enlistment rehearses that lead them straightforwardly into circumstances of constrained work, including obligation subjugation; in different cases, high obligations brought about to pay enrollment charges to leave them powerless against misuse by corrupt businesses in the objective nations, where some are exposed to states of compulsory bondage, including non-installment of wages, limitations on development, unlawful retention of travel papers, and physical or sexual maltreatment.
Illegal exploitation in India brings about ladies experiencing both mental and actual issues. Mental issues incorporate issues, for example, PTSD, gloom, and tension. The absence of control ladies have in dealing builds their danger of experiencing mental issues. Ladies who are constrained into dealing are at a higher danger for HIV, TB, and different STDs. Condoms are once in a while utilized and in this manner, there is a higher danger for casualties to experience the ill effects of an STD.
Constitutional & Legislative Provisions Related To Trafficking In India
The following provisions are in place for the same as:
- Trafficking in Human Beings or Persons is prohibited under the Constitution of India under Article 23 (1)
- The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA) is the premier legislation for the prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
- Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2013 has come into force wherein Section 370 of the Indian Penal Code has been substituted with Section 370 and 370A IPC which provide for comprehensive measures to counter the menace of human trafficking including trafficking of children for exploitation in any form including physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.
- Protection of Children from Sexual offenses (POCSO) Act, 2012, which has come into effect from 14th November 2012 is a special law to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation. It provides precise definitions for different forms of sexual abuse, including penetrative and non-penetrative sexual assault, sexual harassment.
- There is other specific legislation enacted relating to trafficking in women and children Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006, Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976, Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, apart from specific Sections in the IPC, e.g. Sections 372 and 373 dealing with selling and buying of girls for prostitution.
- State Governments have also enacted specific legislation to deal with the issue. (e.g. The Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Act, 2012)
Judicial Pronouncements on Human Trafficking in India
What is Human Trafficking
It was laid down as early as in 1953 in Raj Bahadur v. the State of W.B., 1953 SCC OnLine Cal 129 that traffic in human beings means to deal in men and women like goods, such as to sell or let or otherwise dispose of. It would include traffic in women and children for immoral or other purposes.
Heinous Nature of the Crime vis-à-vis Moral Culpability
The Court observed in Vishal Jeet v. Union of India, (1990) 3 SCC 318 that:
“The causes and evil effects of prostitution maligning the society are so notorious and frightful that none can gainsay it. It is highly deplorable and heartrending to note that many poverty-stricken children and girls in the prime of youth are taken to the ‘flesh market’ and forcibly pushed into the ‘flesh trade’ which is being carried on in utter violation of all canons of morality, decency, and dignity of humankind. There cannot be two opinions—indeed there is none—that this obnoxious and abominable crime committed with all kinds of unthinkable vulgarity should be eradicated at all levels by drastic steps.”
Human Trafficking and Child Prostitution
In Vishal Jeet v. Union of India, (1990) 3 SCC 318 the Court laid down the following directions in this regard:
- All the State Governments and the Governments of Union Territories should direct their law-enforcing authorities concerned to take appropriate and speedy action in eradicating child prostitution.
- The State Governments and the Governments of Union Territories should set up a separate Advisory Committee within their respective zones to make suggestions regarding the measures to be taken and the social welfare programs to be implemented for the children and girls rescued from the vices of prostitution.
- All the State Governments and the Governments of Union Territories should take steps in providing adequate and rehabilitative homes manned by well-qualified trained social workers, psychiatrists, and doctors.
- The Union Government should set up a committee of its own to evolve welfare programs on the national level for the care, protection, rehabilitation, etc. of the young fallen victims and to make suggestions of amendments to the existing laws for the prevention of sexual exploitation of children.
- The Central Government and the Governments of States and Union Territories should devise machinery of its own for ensuring the proper implementation of the suggestions that would be made by the respective committees.
- The Advisory Committee can also delve deep into the devadasi system and jogin tradition and give their valuable advice and suggestions as to what best the Government could do in that regard.
Human Trafficking and Bonded Labour
The Supreme Court in Bandhua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India, (1984) 3 SCC 161 has elucidated the rehabilitation of bonded labor and directed the Government to award compensation to released/rescued bonded labor under the provisions of Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 after taking note of serious violation of fundamental and human rights:
“The rehabilitation of the released bonded laborers is a question of great importance because if the bonded laborers who are identified and freed, are not rehabilitated, their condition would be much worse than what it was before during the period of their serfdom and they would become more exposed to exploitation and slide back once again into serfdom even in the absence of any coercion. The bonded laborer who is released would prefer slavery to hunger, a world of ‘bondage and illusory security’ as against a world of freedom and starvation.”
It may be pointed out that the concept of rehabilitation has the following four main features as addressed by the Secretary, Ministry of Labour, Government of India to the various States Governments:
- Psychological rehabilitation must go side by side with physical and economic rehabilitation.
- The physical and economic rehabilitation has 15 major components, namely, allotment of house sites and agricultural land, land development, provision of low-cost dwelling units, agriculture, provision of credit, health medical care and sanitation, the supply of essential commodities, education of children of bonded laborers and protection of civil rights, etc.
- There is scope for bringing about integration among the various central and State-sponsored schemes for more qualitative rehabilitation and to avoid duplication.
- While drawing up any scheme/program of rehabilitation of freed bonded labor, the latter must necessarily be given the choice between the various alternatives for their rehabilitation, and such program should be finally selected for execution as would meet the total requirements of the family of freed bonded laborers to enable them to cross the poverty line on the one hand and to prevent them from sliding back to debt bondage on the other.
The Supreme Court in PUCL v. the State of T.N., (2013) 1 SCC 585 directed the District Magistrates to effectively implement Sections 10, 11 and 12 of the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 and expected them to discharge their functions with due diligence, empathy, and sensitivity, taking note of the fact that the Act is a welfare legislation.
Human Trafficking and Child Labour
In Lakshmi Kant Pandey v. Union of India, (1984) 2 SCC 244 P.N. Bhagwati, J., observed:
“6. It is obvious that in a civilized society the importance of child welfare cannot be over-emphasized, because the welfare of the entire community, its growth, and development, depend on the health and well-being of its children. Children are a ‘supremely important national asset’ and the future well-being of the nation depends on how its children grow and develop.”
The Supreme Court in M.C. Mehta v. the State of T.N., (1996) 6 SCC 756 seeing the severe violation of fundamental rights in cases of child labor observed:
“… if there is at all a blueprint for tackling the problem of child labor, it is education. Even if it were to be so, the child of a poor parent would not receive education, if perforce it has to earn to make the family meet both the ends. Therefore, unless the family is assured of income aliunde, the problem of child labor would hardly get solved; and it is this vital question that has remained almost unattended.
… if the employment of child below the age of 14 is a constitutional indiction insofar as work in any factory or mine is concerned, it has to be seen that all children are given education till the age of 14 years given this being a fundamental right now, and if the wish embodied in Article 39(e) that the tender age of children are not abused and citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocation unsuited to their age, and if children are to be given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and childhood is to be protected against exploitation as visualized by Article 39(f), it seems to us that the least we ought to do is see to the fulfillment of legislative intendment behind the enactment of the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.”
Given the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 the offending employer must be asked to pay compensation for every child employed in contravention of the provisions of the Act a sum of Rs 20,000 which is to be deposited in Child Labour Rehabilitation-cum-Welfare Fund.
Constitution of Committee to Combat Trafficking in Humans
In Gaurav Jain v. Union of India, (1997) 8 SCC 114, the Supreme Court passed an order directing, inter alia, the constitution of a committee to make an in-depth study of the problems of prostitution, child prostitution, and children of prostitutes, to help evolve suitable schemes for their rescue and rehabilitation.
The Supreme Court observed:
“27. … The ground realities should be tapped with meaningful action imperatives, apart from the administrative action which aims at arresting immoral traffic of women under the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act through inter-State or Interpol arrangements and the nodal agency like the CBI is charged to investigate and prevent such crimes.”
The Central Government according to the directions issued by the Supreme Court in the Gaurav Jain case constituted a “Committee on the Prostitution, Child Prostitutes and Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking and Commercial and Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children”.
Vocational Training and Social Welfare Boards
The Supreme Court in Budhadev Karmaskar v. the State of W.B., (2011) 11 SCC 538 had issued notice to all States while noting down the concern on the pathetic conditions of sex workers:
“… we strongly feel that the Central and the State Governments through Social Welfare Boards should prepare schemes for rehabilitation all over the country for physically and sexually abused women commonly known as prostitutes as we are of the view that the prostitutes also have a right to live with dignity under Article 21 of the Constitution of India since they are also human beings and their problems need to be addressed.
A woman is compelled to indulge in prostitution not for pleasure but because of abject poverty. If such a woman is granted the opportunity to avail of some technical or vocational training, she would be able to earn her livelihood by such vocational training and skill instead of by selling her body. Hence, we direct the Central and the State Governments to prepare schemes for giving technical/vocational training to sex workers and sexually abused women in all cities in India.”
Measures were taken by the Government of India to Prevent and Combat Human Trafficking
To tackle the menace of human trafficking, the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India has undertaken several measures such as:
Administrative measures and interventions
Anti-Trafficking Cell (ATC): Anti-Trafficking Nodal Cell was set up in the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) (CS Division in 2006 to act as a focal point for communicating various decisions and follow up on action taken by the State Governments to combat the crime of Human Trafficking. MHA conducts coordination meetings with the Nodal Officers of Anti Human Trafficking Units nominated in all States/UTs periodically.
Advisories: To improve the effectiveness in tackling the crime of human trafficking and to increase the responsiveness of the law enforcement machinery, MHA has issued the following comprehensive advisories to all States/UTs:
- Advisory for preventing the crime of human trafficking date 9.9.2009.
- Advisory on crime against children dated 14th July 2010.
- Advisory on missing children dated 31st January 2012.
- Advisory on Preventing and Combating cyber-crime against children dated 4.1.2012.
- Advisory on Human Trafficking as Organised Crime dated 30th April 2012.
- Advisory on Preventing and combating human trafficking in India-dealing with foreign nationals dated 1.5.2012.
- SOP to handle trafficking of children for child labor dated 12.8.2013.
- Advisory on MHA Web Portal on Anti Human Trafficking dated 5.5.2014.
- Advisory dated 23.7.2015 for associating SSB and BSF in crime meetings.
These advisories/SOP are available on MHA’s Web Portal on Anti Human Trafficking at www.stophumantrafficking-MHA.nic.in
Ministry of Home Affairs’ scheme: Ministry of Home Affairs under a Comprehensive Scheme strengthening law enforcement response in India against Trafficking in Persons through Training and Capacity Building, has released fund for the establishment of Anti Human Trafficking Units for 270 districts of the country.
Strengthening the capacity building: To enhance the capacity building of law enforcement agencies and generate awareness among them, various Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops on combating Trafficking in Human Beings for Police officers and Prosecutors at the Regional level, State level, and District level were held throughout the country.
Judicial Colloquium: To train and sensitize the trial court judicial officers, Judicial Colloquium on human trafficking are held at the High court level. The aim is to sensitize the judicial officers about the various issues concerning human trafficking and to ensure a speedy court process. So far, eleven Judicial Colloquiums have been held at Chandigarh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Odisha.
Implementation of International Conventions on Trafficking by India
UN Convention: India has ratified the United Nations Convention on Transnational Organised Crime (UNCTOC) which has as one of its Protocols Prevention, Suppression, and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons, particularly Women and Children. Various actions have been taken to implement the convention and as per Protocol, Criminal Law Amendment Act, 2013â€ has been enacted wherein human trafficking has specifically been defined.
SAARC Convention: India has ratified the SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution. A Regional Task Force was constituted to implement the SAARC Convention. Five meetings of the Regional Task Force have been held so far. The fifth meeting was held at Paro, Bhutan from 11-12 April 2013. As offered in Fifth Meeting, a study tour for SAARC Member countries was conducted from 18-22 November 2013 to learn from the experiences of the Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs) established in various districts of the country. Representatives of Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Afghanistan participated in the study tour.
Bilateral mechanism: For dealing with cross border trafficking and to address the various issues relating to the prevention of Trafficking, victim identification, and repatriation and make the process speedy and victim-friendly between India and Bangladesh, a Task Force of India and Bangladesh was constituted. So far five meetings of Taskforce between India and Bangladesh have been held. The fifth meeting was held on 17-18 August 2015 in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and Bangladesh on Bi-lateral Cooperation for Prevention of Human Trafficking in Women and Children, Rescue, Recovery, Repatriation, and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking was signed in June 2015.
While the slipped by Bill was a very much coordinated and benevolent endeavor by the Indian Government to establish a complete enactment that will handle illegal exploitation and its essential issues. In any case, the Government should embrace a more extensive viewpoint towards dealing with an agreement with Expert Committee suggestions. Guaranteeing viable enactment and its usage will require some serious energy and tolerance however considering Modi Government has an unmistakable greater part in Parliament and that the Women and Child Development Ministry is completely dedicated to battling this hazard, it is trusted that any new Bill will welcome all partners on board to establish a people-focused social enactment which tends to a portion of the issues recognized here and following the master panel suggestions.
- Human Rights and Human Trafficking, United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner, Fact Sheet No. 36, 2014
- Human Trafficking, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India
- Arunima Bose, Human Trafficking, SCC Online, September 20, 2020
- Veerendra Mishra, Human Trafficking: The Stakeholders’ Perspective, SAGE Publications, 2013
- Molly Dragiewicz, Global Human Trafficking: Critical Issues and Contexts, Taylor & Francis, 2014
- Louise Shelley, Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 2010