Blood & Criminal Investigation

Blood is the most common as well as primary identification in a crucial investigation. A keen perspective determination of the obtained bloodstain through an advanced experiment by a specialist can provide a precise clue to predict the reasons for bloodstains of the deceased under all circumstances of illicit activities in a criminal investigation. This type of blood examination must be done only when there is an imperative situation to answer peculiar questions on a crime which leads to blood fled. Maintenance of those gathered blood shreds of evidence helps to move forward the investigation further through testing and experimenting. Prevention and preservation of discovered samples of bloodstain from the crime place is very important. Since those evidence of red fluids only indicates the actual happening of crime which led the investigators in a quandary. Thus, to determine the truth in all cases of deaths including accidental, homicide, suicide and murder not only biological experiments of DNA, serology even morphological experiments are required.

Introduction

Red fluid (blood) of a body is the most common as well as primary identification in a crucial investigation. Today’s advancement in the field of science and technical apparatus in science labs makes it easier to indicate the nature of blood with respect to one’s DNA. A keen perspective determination of the obtained bloodstain through an advanced experiment by a specialist can provide a precise clue to predict the reasons for bloodstains of the deceased under all circumstances of illicit activities in a criminal investigation. For this determination, a forensic specialist must have vast knowledge in the principles of forensic analysis, Chemistry, Biology, Physics, mathematics, and empirical knowledge in crime investigation [1]

Time of Examination

Even a small dot of bloodstain becomes key evidence which helps to ascertain and examine the effectiveness of the illicit activity. This type of blood examination must be done only when there is an imperative situation to answer peculiar questions on a crime which leads to blood fled. It should be believed that the fixed prediction without experiment may go wrong and injustice. And it must be considered that this analysis should not be used instantly for every case of types of bloodstains found. The outcome of such analysis makes clear the investigators of respective crime whether the blood fled over was caused due to voluntary injury/massacre/suicide or caused in a good faith with the intention to help to save from more damage [2].

The made experiment must focus thoroughly on determined on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). This method dissolves the facts with answers including the necropsy report of the deceased or damage suffered by the victim. So, this determination of blood experiment can be made solely when there is not sufficient clarification of offence committed on obtained ref-fluid evidence.

Importance of Cumulating & Documenting

Gathering and registering of all biological evidence i.e. blood is the most important duty of the investigators. Maintenance of those gathered blood shreds of evidence helps to move forward the investigation further through testing and experimenting. The maintained evidence of red fluids may be in the form of liquid or even in the dried state. Cumulating of bloodstains in the form of liquid can be obtained from the deceased in a blood-soaked state or his belongings and it is necessary to be refrigerated. The cumulating of red-fluid stains which are dried can be obtained from the surrounding objects where the crime committed or on the belongings of the deceased. If found evidence was not exportable the investigators can take a small piece of that evidence or can take the fingerprint from that place using lifting tape. The investigators can also cumulate dried evidence by inducing the pieces in hot water to make the stain small which can be easily exported to the lab and by collecting the bloodstain with plain cotton papers. It is most important that each collected evidence is to be packed and maintained separately [3].

The actual record of all information regarding the bloodstains in the place of offences committed should be registered by the investigators. Such registration of documents includes the proofs of collected and written evidence. Even digital records of bloodstains can also be registered like pictures of the bloodstains from all places where the crime happened or not; laser scanner method to record the crime place, etc [4].

Prevention

Prevention and preservation of discovered samples of bloodstain from the crime place is very important. Since those evidence of red fluids only indicates the actual happening of crime which led the investigators in a quandary. The obtained evidence of liquid state samples should be accessed in the labs within 48 hours of the commencement of crime to make it safe in the lab’s temperature. If the collected evidence exceeds the said duration, then it becomes invaluable. Hence it must be refrigerated or kept in a cooled container. The investigators must be ensured that the collected evidence is to be packed or covered safely and maintained separately. It is necessary that the liquid stain of evidence must be dehydrated before packed or can be packed in a liquefied state only in the Brown Kraft cover [5].

Then the paper cover is sealed and transported. Only one sample of evidence must be stored in one pack of containers to avoid confusion and the use of plastic containers is prohibited. If any huge dry evidence is found in a crime place that place should be covered with barricade tape to secure from access to other peoples. And it is mandatory that the discovered evidence must be properly separated, labeled, and sealed.

Serological Method with DNA

When there arises a most difficult situation in a criminal case in the sense of identification or tacking of what were the reasons caused. This advanced experimental method is done only in the most critical situation. Serology is the scientific study or examination of blood serum. This is done to find the discovered evidence of dripped red-fluid stain originally belongs to a human being. A Combur 3 test strip is made to confirm the discovered evidence is related to human blood.

After completing the serology test of confirming the presence of human blood, the next task is to identify to whom does the blood belongs. For this the DNA experiment is done which deals with the biological characteristics of the human serum and provides the genetic details. This method of experiment gives the most precise outcome of the test made. This experiment helps to find the obtained evidence of human blood belongs to which person. The outcome of this test clarifies such blood belongs to the victim or the accused. In certain cases, the discovered red-fluid stains may be a combination of both victim and the accused. About the obtained outcome of DNA experiment also indicates the damage on the bodies has a connection with the necropsy report. There are a number of DNA kits in today’s world starting from the evolution of 1st forensic case in the 1980’s, which determines the blood and biological characters of the person. These both methods of testing are very costlier since they determine the correct and precise outcome [6].

Various Forms of Design

In addition to the experiments, the design of bloodstains in the place of crime helps the investigators to ascertain the ideas on commencement of the offence. There are many chances for different ways of blood to get spattered. Some of the predicted forms of bleeding ways which assists the investigators are as follows [7]:

  • With the help of gravity, the fall of red fluid from one end to another, blood-stained in the form of drops from one’s body can be predicted in a place with an accurate angle.
  • The more amount of dribble of blood confirms the place of crime. 
  • Blood gets spattered in the form of a splash in a place.
  • When the red fluid is projected with the help of a syringe.
  • The blood is noted in the shape of any non-living object when it is spattered while the commencement of offence.
  • Due to external force when the blood gets spattered to the whole place.
  • When the small lines of blood get notified while throwing of any object furnished with blood.
  • Blood may be noted in the form that happened of a sudden strike related to arterial bleeding.
  • Even with the velocity of blood released in the form of a mist can be guessed happened through cough of a person.

Characters with Required Particulars

Blood is the red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins of humans and other vertebrate animals, carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body [8]. The blood has no fixed structure like other liquid fluids. It is said that for an average person blood occupies seven percent of total body weight with a total between 4-5% for women and 5-6% for men. To analyze the blood, properties in physics, chemistry, and biology play a major role. The methods for calculating the angle of direction or velocity or viscosity or density or cohesion of blood spattered the study of physics and chemistry is used. The scientific study of science in all departments helps to test and determine the DNA of a person [9].

The outcome of morphological experiments regarding the evidence of bloodstains provides more precious details that put forwards the inquiry in the correct path. With the overall assessment of obtained results of analysis will make more clarification with confidence in the investigation. Estimation of direction of blood from where it shed can be determined through the three-dimensional shape of that dried blood drop. The approximate time of such offence performed is determined by calculating the duration of drying blood. Thus, not only the biological methods are required to ascertain the crime the study on structures or shapes is also required [10].

Conclusion

There are total of seven principles of forensic sciences which help the experts to analyze the criminal investigation. Only forensic experts can deal with and solve difficult mystery cases. The direction of blood distinguishes murder and suicide. While killing a person with an object, first goes forward causes the blood spatter and backward the blood spatter on the accused this kind of action regards to murder and not suicide. To ascertain the investigation on the side of accidental and homicide crimes and to find more accurate details of crimes in the case of murder and suicide forensic science plays a key role. Thus, to determine all cases of deaths including accidental, homicide, suicide, and murder not only biological experiments of DNA, serology even morphological experiments are needed and to be developed for easy determination.

FAQs

Q.1. What is the Serological Method?

The serological method is the scientific examination of blood serum. This is done to find the discovered evidence of dripped red-fluid (blood) stain originally belongs to human beings.

Q.2. What are the Seven Principles of Forensic Science?

Law of individuality, Law of analysis, Principle of exchange, Law of Comparison, Law of probability, Law of progressive change, and Law of Circumstantial Facts.

Q.3. Is Hair Considered as Biological Evidence?

Most commonly hair is seen at a crime place and used as biological evidence in the criminal investigation.

Q.4. Blood Analysis is Mandatory in All Cases?

No certainly not. The blood analysis is restricted only when there raises a quandary state in an investigation.

Q.5. What is the Purpose of DNA Analysis?

This DNA experiment helps to find the discovered evidence of human blood belongs to which person through the genetic details.

References:

[1] https://juniperpublishers.com/jfsci/pdf/JFSCI.MS.ID.555608.pdf

[2] https://juniperpublishers.com/jfsci/pdf/JFSCI.MS.ID.555608.pdf

[3] https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/forensic-investigation/blood-evidence-collection-and-preservation/

[4] https://juniperpublishers.com/jfsci/pdf/JFSCI.MS.ID.555608.pdf

[5] https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/forensic-investigation/blood-evidence-collection-and-preservation/

[6] https://juniperpublishers.com/jfsci/pdf/JFSCI.MS.ID.555608.pdf

[7] https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/forensic-investigation/blood-evidence-basics-and-patterns/

[8]https://www.google.com/search?bih=657&biw=1366&rlz=1C1CHBF_enIN860IN860&hl=en&ei=hsg3X776Otmv9QOHx7OIBg&q=blood+meaning&oq=blood+meaning&gs_lcp=CgZwc3ktYWIQARgCMgcIABBGEP8BMgIIADICCAAyAggAMgIIADICCAAyAggAMgIIADICCAAyAggAOgQIABBDOgUIABCxAzoCCC46DgguELEDEMcBEKMCEIsDOgUIABCLAzoLCC4QsQMQgwEQiwM6CggAELEDEAoQiwM6CAgAELEDEIsDOgUIABCRAjoICC4QsQMQgwE6CAguELEDEIsDOgUILhCxAzoFCC4QiwM6CAguELEDEJMCOgQIABAKUO6gRFiQt0RggcNEaABwAHgBgAGjBogBnSqSAQ0wLjIuMS4yLjUuMi4xmAEAoAEBqgEHZ3dzLXdpergBAsABAQ&sclient=psy-ab

[9] https://juniperpublishers.com/jfsci/pdf/JFSCI.MS.ID.555608.pdf

[10] https://juniperpublishers.com/jfsci/pdf/JFSCI.MS.ID.555608.pdf

One Reply to “Blood & Criminal Investigation”

  1. The abstract of the article itself gives the reader the urge to continue reading. Every aspect of forensic investigation in combination with the principles and law is dealt with in detail, neatly.

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