Artificial Intelligence: Threat to Privacy

Introduction

Artificial intelligence consists of two words: “artificial” and “intelligence”. Artificial means something that is not natural, but man-made, while intelligence means “the ability to learn.” Artificial intelligence means that machines can make their own decisions based on a specific situation. These machines work and react like humans. AI machines also have cognitive skills that allow them to capture the environment and make the right decision. Some machines can even understand natural language and perform their actions accordingly.

In general, the basic objective of building AI machines is to reduce human effort. Furthermore, it is dangerous for human lives to develop machines that can-do human work. While highly beneficial for the modern world, a world in which robots, smart systems, and algorithms play an increasingly central role is seen as a major threat to labour markets.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the most disruptive technology in modern times[1]. Its impact will likely even eclipse the development of the Internet as it penetrates every corner of our lives. Many AI applications are already known, e.g. speech recognition, natural language processing and autonomous cars. Other implementations are less well known but are increasingly being implemented, e.g. Content analysis, medical robots and autonomous warriors. What they all have in common is the ability to extract information from unstructured data.

Advances in AI not only herald a new era in computers, but they also pose new threats to social values and constitutional rights. The threat to privacy from algorithms in social media and the Internet of Things is well known. What is less appreciated is the even greater threat that AI poses to democracy itself.[2] Recent events show how AI can be “armed” to corrupt elections and poison people’s trust in democratic institutions. However, like many disruptive technologies, it takes time for the law to catch up.

Privacy Defined

The concept of privacy is not new in India. Ancient Indian epistemology, which is based on ancient literature, prescribes meditation, which must be carried out without interference from outside. “The policy underlying the rules for building houses and palaces in the Grihya, Ramayana, Mahabharat and Arthasastra Sutra shows great respect and respect for privacy. The use of curtains as described in Ramayana and other classical literature is a clue in the same direction. “Today, without mentioning the right to say nothing, given the invention of new means and methods to outrage personal control.

Defining the term “Privacy” is one of the most difficult tasks since the meaning of data protection varies greatly depending on the context, circumstances and environment. It has been described as “the legitimate right of people to work out what proportion they need to share”. “Privacy” has also been defined as “zero relationships between two or more people within the sense that there’s no interaction or communication between them if they so desire.” The concept of privacy is used not only to protect rights exclusively in private Describe area between individuals but also constitutional rights against the state. The first relates to the extent to which an individual or the media have the right to personal information about another person. The latter relates to the extent to which the state can intervene in the life of the citizen to monitor his movements. Alan F. Westin defines privacy as “the right of people, groups, or institutions to work out when, how, and to what extent information about them is shared with others.”

Cyber Privacy

Modern technological innovations and developments in the field of computers and the Internet have created an environment in which a constantly growing pool of personal information about identifiable people throughout the cyber world can be accessed quickly and inexpensively. “Data protection in the technological world is a difficult matter. Technology has become a kind of double-edged sword. On the one hand, it equips the person to protect their privacy and, on the other hand, it helps to inflate the data protection coverage that one can have. “

The Internet is a rich source of personal information about potential online consumers. Some of the website owners track consumer activity online and collect information on personal likes and dislikes. The data collected in this way is valuable to a web company, as it is not only possible to bring products and services to the market, but they can also use this data to sell advertising space on their websites. Personal data may be recorded by government agencies, various service providers, and other organizations, such as insurance companies, banks, hospitals, schools, credit card companies, telephone service providers, etc. These personal data can be misused if they fall into the wrong hand.

Brief Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is a form of “intelligent computing”[3] because it is based on computer programs that can feel, argue, learn, act and adapt as much as humans.[4] It is “intelligent” because it emulates human knowledge.[5] It is “artificial” because it is more a matter of arithmetic than biological information processing. The emerging performance of AI is based on exponential growth in computer processing and storage, as well as the vast amounts of data that can be tested to determine its meaning. The computing skills of machines and advances in robotics[6] are now so impressive that many science fiction predictions of the past fade in comparison. With the quantum computer on the near horizon,[7] AI skills will improve faster than we can imagine or prepare.

Machine learning (ML) is a more advanced form of AI that relies less on human programming than on the ability of an algorithm to use statistical methods and learn from data over time. A strong form of ML is deep learning (DL), which uses learning algorithms called artificial neural networks that are free from the structure of the human brain. Artificial neurons are connected to each other in layers, which are connected and processed again during operation by feedback loops of the “backward propagation”[8]. They emulate nerve pathways in the brain that are strengthened each time they are used.[9] This dynamic approach enables DL to find patterns in unstructured data from which the representation of knowledge is modelled in a way that resembles thinking. With DL, developers only enter basic rules (e.g. mathematical operations) and goals. AI will determine the steps required to implement it.[10] This adaptability makes AI so powerful.

The next generation of AI will be General Artificial Intelligence (AGI). His skills go beyond solving a specific and predefined set of problems by applying intelligence to every problem.[11] As soon as computers can autonomously overcome even the most intelligent people, we have reached Artificial Intelligence (ASI).[12] Some have referred to this as a “singularity” when the capabilities of silicon computing outperform biological computing.[13] At this point, visions of a dystopian future may arise.[14] Fortunately, we have time to plan. Unfortunately, we lack an adequate sense of urgency.

Threat to Privacy

The right to make personal decisions for yourself, the right to maintain the confidentiality of your personal information and the right to stay alone are part of the fundamental right to privacy.

AI seems to improve our lives and is ready to offer better health care, better financial management and a better social environment.The challenge arises when AI is associated with privacy and data ownership issues. We are talking about the value of data: data is the “new” oil. This is a concept, data as a product comparable in value and use to oil, which is generally credited to Clive Humby, the British mathematician behind Tesco’s Clubcard loyalty program and My Kroger Plus. Humby noted that while the data is intrinsically valuable, it must be processed unprocessed, just as oil must be refined before it reaches its full potential. Similar to oil, which has fuelled industrial growth, the data is used to drive transformative technologies. Data also has many advantages: it can be easily transported and reused at very low cost. Also, unlike used oil, the data can be more useful the more it is used. In many ways, data is superior to oil and more valuable than oil.[15]

Much of modern artificial intelligence cannot exist without data, which puts data protection and democracy at the centre of interest. Third-party data collectors or “cloud” storage services manage large amounts of data that IoT, surveillance, and surveillance systems collect in various databases. While individual data sets that are distributed across thousands of servers can provide limited information in isolation, this limitation can be overcome by a process called “data fusion” that combines, organizes, and correlates these data points.[16]

The Internet of Things

The power behind artificial intelligence lies in a machine’s access to data. This is essentially what AI does: it breaks down data. The more information points on a data subject or the larger the data record accessible, the better the AI   can respond to a query or perform a function.[17]

The Internet of Things (“IoT”) is an ecosystem of electronic sensors found in our bodies, in our homes, offices, vehicles, and in public places. “Things” are man-made objects or natural objects to Those belonging to the Internet are assigned addressing and data transfer over a network without person-to-person or person-to-computer interaction.”[18] If AI is like the human brain, IoT is like the human body that collects sensory inputs (sound, image, and touch).[19] IoT devices collect raw data from people who perform physical actions and communicate with Others. These devices have facilitated the collection, storage and analysis of large amounts of information.

AI-based programs can use this data in part to improve our lives, but also to influence or control us. While the Internet of Things makes every move and every wish transparent to data companies, the Collection and use of our information remain opaque to us. The enormous asymmetry of information leads to considerable power imbalances, with privacy being the primary victim.

The Surveillance Ecosystem

“Things” are not the only data collection devices that we have found. They are accompanied by physical and online surveillance systems. The ubiquity of such systems makes them appear harmless or at least familiar. Consider messaging platforms like Skype from Microsoft, WeChat from Tencent or WhatsApp and Messenger from Facebook. You pay for these free or low-cost services with your data.[20] Also consider communication systems: e-mail, text messages, telephone, mobile phone and IP telephone.

Visual methods also collect personal information, including through advanced technologies such as aerial and satellite surveillance, drones, license plate readers, street cameras, surveillance cameras, infrared cameras, and other distant and improved imaging devices.[21] Sidewalk “Google builds an” intelligent city “with” ubiquitous detection “of everyone Pedestrian and vehicle activities.

There is no privacy on the Internet. Here are some reasons why. Small file “cookies” that are secretly placed on a user’s hard drive follow their movement through the Internet and deliver this information to server.[22]User data collected by “featured advertisements”, “web beacons” and “tags” Pixel “can include: time spent on each page, activity, scrolling, referring website, device type, and identity.

Illegal means of collecting private information are even more effective than legal means. This includes virus, worm, Trojan horse intrusion, keystroke logging, brute force hacking, and other Internet attacks.[23] While AI is often used to protect data, it mostly helps hackers to defend themselves. Data that IoT and surveillance systems collect in meaningful information that data companies can use for legal or harmful purposes.

Government Surveillance

The federal government has mastered the art of widespread surveillance, some legal and some illegal. Rather than examining the many types of surveillance and confirming or rejecting Supreme Court cases, only the ways and teachings that contribute to AI’s erosion of data protection interests are discussed here.

Misguided trust and third-party doctrines mean that the government can obtain information about you from anyone who has it, without customary or legal restrictions. Third-party providers and the data they have include all tour operators and GPS-enabled apps (like Waze and Google Maps) that track travel and search history, and financial service providers (like banks and credit companies) who have financial information of the client. health care providers and insurers with patient records.

Anonymity

While privacy is about hiding our activities from others, anonymity allows us to disclose our activities but hide our identity. It enables public participation that could be avoided if the associations were known.[24] With anonymization, personal data is removed from the collected data so that the original source cannot be identified.[25] A related process, pseudonymization, replaces most identifying data elements with artificial identifiers or pseudonyms.[26] These are techniques such as hashing, data masking, or encryption that reduce the likelihood of records being associated with the person’s identifying information.

Artificial intelligence is great for re-identifying (or identifying) data by extracting seemingly unrelated data relationships. A study by the University of Melbourne was able to re-identify some Australian patients based on their supposedly anonymous medical billing records.[27] Therefore, the concept of anonymity in the public domain is at best an illusion for AI, but regulations continue to apply on the basis of this illusion. The “erosion of anonymity” prompted the President’s Council of Science and Technology Advisers in 2014 to request a general reassessment of privacy. That hasn’t happened yet. The lack of urgency of the regulations to deal with technical changes and the lack of protection of privacy shows a deterioration in the reliable democratic legal framework.

NITI Aayog’s National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence

The National Institution for Transforming India (also known as “NITI Aayog”), a government-led group of experts, is tasked with developing a national artificial intelligence policy to guide government efforts in AI[28]. To increase economic productivity in India, NITI Aayog partnered with Google in early May 2018 to train and incubate start-ups that want to develop AI-based solutions and integrate them into their business models[29]. In late May 2018, NITI Aayog issued a letter of intent with ABB India to “prepare key sectors of the Indian economy for a digitized future and exploit the potential of AI, big data and connectivity.”

The national strategy goes one step further than any other AI policy process in two ways. First, it acknowledges that AI adoption has been largely commercial, and acknowledges that “a balance needs to be struck between narrow definitions of financial impact and the general good.” Second, it recognizes that AI applications must be considered in different sectors because of their incremental value rather than the assumed transformation value.

Despite these encouraging changes in perspective, the recommendations and substantive analysis of India’s national AI strategy leave something to be desired. The report identifies five main sectors where AI could have positive social impacts, where the government must play a leading role: education, agriculture, health care, smart cities and infrastructure, and smart mobility and transportation.

The Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has also begun to focus on AI. In February 2018, four committees were created to develop a roadmap for a national AI program [30]. All four committees are currently investigating AI as part of community services. Data platforms; Qualification, recycling and R&D; as well as legal, regulatory and cybersecurity perspectives.

As smart cities are discussed, the report encourages the use of AI for surveillance applications. These include artificial intelligence systems that predict crowd behaviour and can be used for crowd management, “sophisticated surveillance systems” that can control the movement and behaviour of people, and social media intelligence platforms that support the can public safety.

Conclusion

AI affects human life both positively and negative form. Its negative effects cause people to take action. To sum up, people in modern society cannot live without these intelligence machines that could do hard and dangerous work instead of people. However, if people rely too heavily on these machines, they will ruin people’s lives, even the whole world. Remember that technology can be beneficial to people, but also harmful depending on how people use it.

Given the complex terrain of navigation challenges posed by AI systems, it is imperative that future considerations, policy decisions, and regulation of AI be shared by multiple disciplines on an equal footing. They must be ethically, legally, technically and philosophically informed throughout the process. The pace of development is rapid, the nature of development is opaque, and the effects of development are profound and often irreversible. The traditions of building processes and the use of technology first and considering its implications below do not work with AI. I hope that the proposed framework will help other researchers, policymakers, lawyers, and technologists to explain, consider, and understand the challenges and opportunities of AI in their unique contexts.

Review Questions

  1. What does Privacy mean to us and Cyber Privacy?
  2. What is AI and how does it work?
  3. How AI is a threat to Privacy?

References


[1] AI began as a discrete field of research in 1956. What Is Artificial Intelligence, SOC’Y FOR STUDY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & SIMULATION BEHAV.

[2] Nicholas Wright, How Artificial Intelligence Will Reshape the Global Order, FOREIGN AFF. (July 10, 2018).

[3]Computer scientists may call this “computational intelligence,” of which AI is a subset.

[4]FUTURE of Artificial Intelligence Act, H.R. 4625, 115th Cong. § 3 (2017) contains a more detailed “official” definition that mostly tracks that provided here.

[5]Algorithms Based on Brains Make for Better Networks, NEUROSCIENCE NEWS (July 17, 2015).

[6]As we use the term, a robot is essentially AI with moving parts.

[7]Vivek Wadhwa, Quantum Computers May Be More of an Imminent Threat than AI, WASH. POST (Feb. 5, 2018).

[8]Alexx Kay, Artificial Neural Networks, COMP. WORLD (Feb. 12, 2001).

[9]DORMEHL, supra note 24, at 35.

[10]Alex Castrounis, Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning, and Neural Networks Explained, INNOARCHITECH.

[11]Joel Traugott, The 3 Types of AI: A Primer, ZYLOTECH (Oct. 24, 2017).

[12]BOSTROM, supra note 15.

[13]RAY KURZWEIL, THE SINGULARITY IS NEAR 136 (2005).

[14]BOSTROM, supra note 15.

[15]The World’s Most Valuable Resource Is No Longer Oil, but Data, ECONOMIST (May 6, 2017).

[16]Sadia Din et. al, A Cluster-Based Data Fusion Technique to Analyse Big Data in Wireless Multi-Sensor Systems, IEEE ACCESS (Feb. 2, 2017).

[17]SAS, Artificial Intelligence: What it is and Why it Matters, SAS.

[18]Margaret Rouse, Internet of Things, TECH TARGET (July 2016).

[19]Calum McClelland, The Difference Between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning, MEDIUM (Dec. 4, 2017).

[20]Samuel Gibbs How Much Are You Worth to Facebook, GUARDIAN (Jan. 28, 2016).

[21]Robert Draper, They Are Watching You – and Everything Else on the Planet, NAT’L GEOGRAPHIC (Dec. 2017).

[22]Joanna Geary, Tracking the trackers: What are Cookies? An Introduction to Web Tracking, GUARDIAN (Apr. 23, 2012).

[23]Olivia Beavers, Security Firm Predicts Hackers Will Increasingly Use AI to Help Evade Detection in 2019, HILL (Nov. 29, 2018).

[24]Bradley Smith, What Hamilton Teaches Us About the Importance of Anonymous Speech, WASH. POST (Nov. 8, 2016).

[25]See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_anonymization.

[26]Clyde Williamson, Pseudonymization vs. Anonymization and How They Help With GDPR, PROTEGRITY (Jan. 5, 2017).

[27]Cameron Abbott et al., De-identification of Data and Privacy, K&L GATES (Feb. 26, 2018).

[28]Sharma, Y. S. & Agarwal, S. 2018 Niti Aayog to come out with national policy on artificial intelligence soon. The Economic Times.

[29]Gupta, K. 2018 Niti Aayog partners with Google to grow India’s artificial intelligence ecosystem. Livemint.

[30]Agarwal, S. 2018 IT Ministry has formed four committees for Artificial Intelligence: Ravi Shankar Prasad. The Economic Times.

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