Children in Circus

“States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.”

-Article 19, The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Abstract

Little do the families, heading off to a circus realize that the fantasy universe of Circus has another face, that the craftsmen acting before them are just veiling the grins under their vigorously made up appearances. The craftsmen are regularly girls and children who are casualties of misuse and misuse. From morning, when their preparation starts and they are men taken care of or beaten, till the time show, where the crowd may be smashed and maybe just keen on their sparsely clad bodies, it is a difficult day of wretchedness and badgering.  The circus is one of the old types of indigenous diversion on the planet and these children are captured, driving a transient burrowed presence away from the center of society, which is tedious and claustrophobic, and subject to changes. Life starts at daybreak with preparing teachers’ yelling manhandles, pitiless beatings, and two bread rolls with some tea. 

After 3-5 shows and of part of degenerate remarks of the groups, the little children can return to their tents around midnight. And still, after all that, life may have something different available, contingent on the nature and emotional episodes of the circus proprietor and administrators. If any young lady whines about the un-eatable food or the releasing tent in the downpour, or if a child is terrified on the rope while playing out the acrobat, it is figured out by the chiefs’ (or managers’) inside no time. No issues!! The children not exclusively are denied of their fundamental rights to schooling and ordinary perky adolescence, but at the same time are confronted with abuse, all things considered; to top their misery is the way that they need to avoid their families.

Introduction

She may be Durga, Kali, Parvati, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganga… yet the tale of the young lady children today is an account of misuse, misuse, and hopelessness. Rather than being adored and regarded, ladies have gotten a subject of attack and in any event, when they live inside shut entryways inside the asylum of their homes, ladies need to sell themselves on each progression of the stepping stool called life. Another section was added to this hopelessness when the account of physical, verbal, and sexual maltreatment of ladies in Indian Circuses came to the spotlight by the endeavors of BBA/SACCS (Bachpan Bachao Andolan/South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude), a Delhi based NGO.

Little do the families, setting off to a circus realize that the fantasy universe of the circus has another face, that the specialists acting before them are just veiling the grins under their vigorously made up appearances. The craftsmen are frequently girls and children who are casualties of misuse and misuse. From morning, when their preparation starts and they are men taken care of or beaten, till the time show, where the crowd may be tanked and maybe just keen on their meagerly clad bodies, it is a difficult day of wretchedness and provocation.

Origin of Circus

Circus‘ is a Latin word meaning an enormous field encased by levels of seats on three or each of the four sides and utilized explicitly for sports or displays. The most established circus in Rome was known as the Circus Maximus and was constructed 2600 years prior. In 1770 a previous British Army Sergeant Major turned gifted equestrian, Philip Astley, set up the primary circus as we probably are aware it. Astley purchased a land parcel close to Westminster Bridge in London and raised on it the primary circus building called the New British School or Amphitheater Riding Ring.

He performed ‘accomplishments of horsemanship’ in the novel setting of a ring over which he later constructed a rooftop to make the cutting-edge circus. He found that this circle gave his crowd much better perspectives and made adjusting simpler because of outward power. His computation of measurement of 42 feet as the ideal size for this has since gotten standard for all circuses.

The historical backdrop of the circus in India can be followed back several years to aerobatic exhibitions performed during sanctuary celebrations. Nonetheless, India had its first visit by an expert circus (from Britain) in 1870 continued in 1879 by a visit from William Chirini’s Italian circus. Vishnupanth Vinayak Chatre, The Raja of Kuruwadan of Maharastra is said to have been the first to set up a circus in Quite a while in 1881. He and his pony mentor tested the meeting Italian circus to see who could beat whom and the Indians won. Prodded on by this achievement they set up their show, focussing primarily on creature acts. In 1952 another vital figure in circus history, Keelari Kunjikannan, began to prepare men to perform surprising actual accomplishments. He set up a free instructional hub in his local Kerala and, up until as of late, entertainers proceeded to customarily come from this State in southern India.

Child Labor in the circuses

Children’s work has arisen as a significant social issue in a large part of the Third World, where fast expansions in the populace, joined with financial stagnation, dry season, war and sickness have diminished the capacity of families to bring in enough cash to help themselves. Subsequently, an ever-increasing number of children are being driven into the work market. India has the biggest populace of children under the age of 14 years, and more significant levels of Child Labour than in other agricultural nations.

Child Labour in India is endemic and will be found in many territories of work from homegrown work to shop orderlies, assembly line laborers to tea young men and ranch hands. Children are frequently favored over grown-ups for their capacity to attempt multifaceted tedious undertakings, their overall consistency, and readiness to work extended periods in helpless conditions for little compensation. 

Children work abuses the essential privileges of children, denying them of a blameless and cheerful youth. These children end up at the fringe of society, lacking fundamental training, with no possibility to learn abilities that would assist them with discovering better-paid work as grown-ups. This beginning a pattern of progressive ages of destitution stricken families driving their children into Child Labour basically to attempt to endure.

The Indian circus industry displays a higher child: adult proportion among its laborers than in most different businesses, with children regularly dwarfing grown-ups. Children are utilized as performing specialists and this is perhaps one of the most noticeably awful types of children work. Away from their families, they work very extended periods, for pitiful if any wages; frequently embraced perilous and even hazardous acts. From first light, every day, a protracted and laborious instructional course is regularly joined by verbal and actual maltreatment. 

There is by all accounts an absence of mindfulness in the public eye everywhere about the perils of children’s work and the significance of training, bringing about an exchange where children are successfully sold by their folks to specialists. Children in this way become items and property of the circus. The children are frequently under obligation servitude, and they are not permitted to leave the circus until their agreement is finished. They carry on with the life of a virtual detainee, kept to the limits of the circus tent. With fruitful missions by basic entitlements associations to boycott the utilization of wild creatures in circuses, the request has developed for the following fundamental fascination – children, particularly young lady, entertainers.

Recruitment and contracts

Children seldom make their specific manner to circuses. On investigating the family foundation and financial state of children craftsmen, it was discovered that they constantly come from devastated, ignorant, and socially minimized families. With a huge family unit to accommodate, the guardians effectively send their children to act in circuses as a trade-off for money. Children are taken to the circus by grown-ups (principally proficient specialists) who energetically scout the field for new dealing casualties.

Despite the way that both Nepal and India have laws condemning dealing and recommend extreme punishments for victimizers, dealing of ladies and girls from devastated networks prospers. Notwithstanding the exercises of expert specialists, frequently the children’s’ family members or neighbors and companions go about as specialists by creating imaginary offers, reaching spotters and representatives, or basically attracting them away from homes and contracting them straightforwardly to circuses or whorehouses.

Typically a gathering of little children is carried over the outskirt by both male and female dealers and afterward contracted to the circus for 5 to 7 years relying on their age. All the more as of late, expanded consciousness of the laws and cautious outskirt watching has implied it has gotten less secure to traffic a huge number of children. In this way, specialists will in general carry girls in little clusters of 3 to 6 children, the greatest gatherings being taken by those with the most creativity and best compatibility with the watching specialists. These gatherings may then be saved for quite a while in a holding region directly over the fringe before others go along with them so they would then be able to be dealt on into India as one enormous gathering.

Specialists may pay guardians a direct front measure of money (roughly 2000 rupees – £25) with the guarantee of proceeded with pay during the time of the agreement (500 – 1000 rupees – £6 – £12).

The circus executives are anxious to “contract” little children, as it is anything but difficult to prepare them given their more noteworthy actual adaptability (for example for tumbling) and they are less inclined to defy the board choices. More youthful children are particularly financially savvy as they can be held for longer agreement periods (5 to 7 years) before they arrive at their mid-adolescents when their administrations are regularly not, at this point required. Specialists can be deceitful and once the children are with a circus, almost no further interest appears in them or their government assistance.

The situation of the children craftsmen in circuses is horrifying. They are survivors of misuse and misuse, compelled to work amazingly extended periods in helpless conditions. Agreement periods range from 3 to10 years and once the agreement is concurred by guardians or specialists, the children are attached to the circus, unfit to voice complaints, be delivered, or break. Visiting their homes and meeting their folks is a fantasy supported by every one of them, however a fantasy that is scarcely ever figured out. Visits from guardians, on the off chance that they occur by any means, are rare as the guardians for the most part lose contact with their children once they are over the outskirt.

Once in the circus, for an underlying 4 to half-year period, they are started into circus life and compelled to go through thorough instructional meetings. Verbal and actual maltreatment and brutal Punishment are typical. The greater part of the children, be that as it may, are submissive and acknowledge their new environmental factors and lifestyle as ‘fate’s will’ or destiny, a way of thinking of life regular to the two India and Nepal. Compelled to buckle down, for extended periods, with no ideal opportunity for rest and no incitement from play or training, they build up a restricted and internal looking disposition to life.

Literacy levels of child performers

61% of children specialists are ignorant with minimal instructive foundation. Almost 30% have been instructed till essential level, exiting after only a couple long stretches of training when they joined the circus, while just about 8% have been to center school. This elevated level of ignorance is regularly a consequence of having had uneducated guardians who see no incentive in, or can’t stand to instruct their children. It is additionally an impression of the high number of girls in the circus and of certain children’s joining circuses at preschool age. No educational cost of any sort is given in the circus; the executives think of it as unwanted as informed children would turn out to be additionally addressing and less simple to control.

Working Conditions

This incorporates the idea of the work, the decision and opportunity of work, long periods of work including practice hours, hazards engaged with performing and the safety measures taken, monetary compensation, methods of discipline, breaks.

Most of the children – 57% – perform things that can be delegated of medium trouble and medium danger –, for example, ground acrobatic, moves, difficult exercises, acrobat, cycling, trampoline, and so forth 30% of children were engaged with marches, satire things, and different things that were light in nature and of okay. 10% of children were associated with high-hazard things requiring a great deal of training and focus, for example, the fire dance, ring of death, mass of death (bike adjusting inside a shut metal globe), rope dance, and blade things. These things likewise require prudent steps, as the danger of mishap and even death toll is extremely high. 

Children are not given any state in which acts they perform. 3% of the children were not occupied with any exhibitions as they had joined the circus as of late.

Safeguards are infrequently taken by the circus the board to guarantee the government assistance of specialists. The security net during formal acrobat things was the main measure saw by the analysts. In some cases, a small kid on the high wire may just be held by a rope appended to a wrist tie. No insurances are taken in those things that include the utilization of fire and blades, high danger things where mishaps and accidents are a typical event. Specialists detailed having being seared or consumed during fire shows and some have been wounded by the blades.

The greater part of the children’s craftsmen works for 7 to 9 hours every day, including practice meetings. They play out a few times each day in the few shows that are booked, the shows running for 1 to 3 hours. There is not any rest between shows as a large part of the time is taken up with changing ensembles or planning for the following show. The quantity of things performed by every child relies on their degree of expertise, the complete number of kid craftsmen in the circus, and how long the kid has been important for the group.

Punishment is utilized to teach and prepare children. Verbal and actual Punishment was seen in all the circuses and revealed by the children specialists. Actual remedy included beatings utilizing ropes, whips, and sticks and could be extremely relying on the temper of the mentor. The children are so used to the rebukes that they don’t view obnoxious attacks as censures. Here and there food limitations are additionally forced to control them, although it’s anything but a typical wonder. The majority of the kid craftsmen were seen by the specialists to have wounds and different imprints on their bodies that might have been from beatings. 

Monetary compensation got by the children is unimportant or frequently not paid by any means. Rs 300 to 500 every month is the normal compensation, however as a rule nothing is paid during the underlying preparing period. Compensations are at times “held” by the administration until guardians visit (which is uncommon). A vast larger part of the children was discovered to be uninformed of the measure of compensation paid to them, as it is normally held by the administration and given to them toward the finish of their agreement. Every day stipends of only 5 to 10 rupees are given to the children and deducted from the compensation toward the month’s end. Compensation accounts are additionally frequently controlled. It isn’t regular to repay specialists for any mishaps and pay to families if there should arise an occurrence of the death toll or significant mishap is completely at the circumspection of the owner.

On the off chance that a craftsman misses a presentation (out of the blue even though medical affliction or mishap), an extent of income is deducted from their compensation. If a craftsman visits their old neighborhood, they are not paid for the length. Children generally don’t visit their homes regardless yet sometimes their folks visit them and gather their pay rates.

Gender-related issues and sexual exploitation

Girls will in general be utilized generally as gymnasts, acrobats, cyclists, and artists and infrequently as performers and jokesters. They live-in second-rate convenience in Company Tents and are not permitted to wander outside separated from practice and execution meetings. Nor are they permitted to connect with other circus specialists. They feel that they are oppressed, as they are isolated and have numerous limitations forced upon them. They additionally have an alternate compensation structure from different representatives. All the girls detailed being awkward and humiliated in their exhibition outfits, however are advised they need to wear them.

There is no different changing space for them and this makes a ton of trouble during execution, as they need to return to the Company Tents to change for the following thing. They need to persevere through the crowds’ licentious and hostile comments and signals during exhibitions and they are not permitted to gripe. Many single girls revealed their discontent to the analysts yet couldn’t perceive some other calling as a practical alternative and were attached to the circus by their agreements.

No maternity benefits or any sort of paid leave are given to wedded female craftsmen. Eager moms need to work during their pregnancies as no compensation or remuneration is paid to them on the off chance that they are not performing. Some pregnant wedded craftsmen announced that they needed to work in any event, during the eighth month of pregnancy and were relied upon to begin performing again straight after conveyance.

Legal Aspects of the Use of Children in Circuses

The use and abuse of children in circuses are now examined in the context of the Indian Constitution, current Indian labor laws, and the UN Convention on the Rights of The Child (1989). It is clear that the use of children in circuses violates all three in the following respects:

The Indian Constitution

The employment of children in circuses is in contravention of the Indian constitution in respect of the stipulations for the education of children. When a child joins a circus there is no formal academic education and their development of skills is entirely related to the nature of their employment within the circus. Under the 93rd Amendment of the Indian Constitution several articles have been modified as follows:

  1. Article 21A: The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.
  • Article 45 (Provision of free and compulsory education of children): The State shall endeavor to provide, within ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.
  • Article 51A: It shall be the duty of every citizen of India: (k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.

Existing labor laws and the legitimacy of contracts of employment for children

The Indian Contract Act, 1872 states:

Chapter 2, section 10 – “All agreements are contracts if they are made by the free consent of parties competent to contract, for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object, and are not hereby expressly declared to be void.”

Chapter 2, section 11 – “Every person is competent to contract who is of the age of majority according to the law to which he is subject, and who is of sound mind and is not disqualified from contracting by any law to which he is subject”.

The Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986 allows for the employment of children under certain conditions, presumably if they have been placed there by parents. A contract made directly between the child and the circus owner would be invalid as the child has not reached the majority (the definition of a “child” under Section 2 (II) of the Act is one who has not attained the age of 14 years).

The scope does exist for parents to place children in employment (a place of employment includes “place of public amusement or entertainment” – Part 1, section 2(IV)) – although this appears to conflict with the requirement for children to be educated up to 8th standard – there are other regulations stated in Part III, section 7 of the Act in which circuses are clearly in the breach:

The period of work on each day shall be so fixed that no period shall exceed three hours and that no child shall work for more than three hours before he has had an interval for rest for at least one hour.”

The period of work of a child shall be so arranged that inclusive of his interval for rest, under subsection (2), it shall not be spread over more than six hours, including the time spent in waiting for work on any day.”

No child shall be permitted or required to work between 7 p.m. and 8 p.m.”

No child shall be required or permitted to work overtime.”

Section 8 states that each child will have one whole day of holiday per week, Section 9 compels employers to notify an inspectorate of the child’s employment within 30 days of commencing work and Section 11 instructs that a register of child employees and their working hours be maintained. Section 12 gives health and safety regulations, for example, the prohibition of children being employed on “dangerous machines”.

The UN Convention of the Rights of The Child

The articles of the UN Convention of the Rights of The Child (wherein a child is defined as being below the age of 18 years) are more far-reaching and the contrasts between the articles and the reality of the problem of children in circuses are clear:

Article 2:

States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights outlined in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, color, sex, language, religion, political or another opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or another status.

Article 3:

States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.

Article 6:

States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.

Article 7:

The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality, and, as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.

Article 8:

States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name, and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.

Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.

Article 9:

States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, following applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child’s place of residence.

Article 11:

States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad

Article 13:

The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child’s choice.

Article 15:

States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and freedom of peaceful assembly.

Article 19:

States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.

Article 27:

States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral, and social development.

Article 28:

States Parties recognize the right of the child to education and to achieve this right progressively and based on an equal opportunity, they shall, in particular:

Article 31:

States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child, and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.

Article 32:

States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.

States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social, and educational measures to ensure the implementation of the present article. To this end and having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular: (a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment;

Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment;

Article 34:

States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral, and multilateral measures to prevent:

The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;

The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;

The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.

Article 35:

States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral, and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of, or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.

Article 36:

States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child’s welfare.

Article 37:

States Parties shall ensure that:

No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without the possibility of release shall be imposed for offenses committed by persons below eighteen years of age.

Supreme Court bans the employment of children in circuses

The Supreme Court on April 18, 2011, banned the employment of children in circuses and directed the Union government to take immediate steps to rescue those engaged in such employment. A Bench of Justices Dalveer Bhandari and A.K. Patnaik, passing orders on a petition filed by the Bachpan Bachao Andolan, said: “To implement the fundamental right of children under Article 21A [right to education], it is imperative that the Central government issue suitable notifications prohibiting the employment of children in circuses within two months.”

The Bench pointed out that trafficking in women and children was on the rise as it had become an increasingly lucrative business, especially since the risk of being prosecuted was very low. The Bench directed the Centre to conduct simultaneous raids in all circuses to liberate children and check violation of their fundamental rights. “The rescued children [should] be kept in care and protective homes till they attain the age of 18.The Bench directed the Centre to frame a proper scheme of rehabilitation for the rescued children from circuses. The government should talk to the parents of the children, and “in case they are willing to take their children back to their homes, they may be directed to do so after proper verification.”

Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA)

Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA) led a secret review of all circuses in India to find the greatness of children’s work and dealing with the circus business. There is a major issue of dealing with little children in Nepal and India (the two nations are on the Tier 2 Watch list in the U.S. Division of State Trafficking in Persons Report). The girls are dealt with the motivations behind the bondage, including sexual servitude and prostitution. 

Due to the socio-political circumstance in Nepal, combined with lack of education and obliviousness, countless children (particularly girls) are dealt into India. Inside India, the chaotic areas like media outlets, circuses, farming, massage parlors, and so on, play a willing host to these casualties, like a ton of modern laws are not appropriate in these areas. There is practically no huge exertion concerning the public authority to forestall these practices.

The BBA in India went over various protests by guardians in Nepal who had been hoodwinked into sending their children over the fringe to work in Circuses and who had no clue about their children’s whereabouts. The BBA directed a covert overview of all circuses in India to discover more about the size of the issue in 2002.

In January 2004, because of the steady weight being applied on the Indian Circus Federation, an affirmation was endorsed between the BBA and the ICF expressing that there will be no further utilization of children in Indian Circuses. Along these lines, more than 80 children and girls have been freed from circuses through intentional deliveries and strike and salvage tasks.

Conclusion

The issue of sexual abuse of specialists initially became known when some minor girls in the Apollo Circus whined of never-ending assault by the proprietor. Alim, the proprietor of Apollo circus assaulted a few girls alongside his sibling before they were at last protected by the police. A large portion of the circus craftsmen are explicitly manhandled by the circus executives and now and then even shipped off the nearby force rulers. These girls come from ruined family foundations, with a fantasy about finding a decent line of work, and are caught under the bogus direction of agents who settle on the artless guardians’ consent to unlawful arrangements and later utilize similar arrangements to keep the girls.

As of late, the issue helped up at the global level when a group drove by Mr. Kailash Satyarthi, alongside his group went for a strike and salvage activity in Great Roman Circus at Colonelganj of Gonda District in Uttar Pradesh. In the wake of getting grumblings from 11 Nepali guardians (four guardians went with), the group moved toward the nearby organization for help in making sure about the delivery. 

However, the organization plotted with the Circus Owner, and the group was fiercely assaulted with knives, iron poles, and firearms. Kailash Satyarthi, media people, and a lot more activists were fiercely harmed during the activity. Raja, the proprietor of the Great Roman circus was later captured on charges of assault however this is certifiably not a disengaged story.

An exploration shows over half of the girls coming from West Bengal, UP, Bihar, and from the north-eastern states including Assam. Numerous girls from the Nalbari region of Assam are occupied with the circus-like Empire, Asiad, and so forth One may notice such accounts of misuse of circus craftsmen who are once in a while treated more awful than creatures. Along these lines, it is significant for everybody to know and comprehend that it’s anything but a protected spot for girls as there are several Rajas and Alims inside the nearby limits of the hellhole called “Circus”.

References

  • Adrienne Liebmann, Footscray Community Arts Centre, Women’s Circus: Leaping Off the Edge, Spinifex, 1997
  • Sarita Hidam, Circus!! Behind the Curtain!!!, E-Pao
  • Supreme Court bans employment of children in circuses, The Hindu, September 27, 2016
  • Report on The Use and Abuse of Children in Circuses in India, The Esther Benjamins Trust in partnership with The South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude and The Nepal Child Welfare Foundation, March 2003
  • Case of Bachpan Bachao Andolan v Union of India (UOI) and Ors., Writ Petition (C) No. 51 of 2006, Decided on April 18, 2011 by Supreme Court of India

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